At the beginning of the 20th century, the working process of the mill was modernized and we found different documents indicating the budgets received for the acquisition of different machines. We are located in the alternator room, where electricity was produced thanks to the mechanical action generated by the Francis turbine installed together with a whole set of gears and transmission shaft to improve the performance of the mill. Here you can see the budget for the purchase of a Francis turbine, simple, without camera, with horizontal axis, dated October 4, 1919. It was a Siemens steel turbine. This turbine powered up for a time the shaft that directly fed the gears of the rice mill as well as the shaft that fed the alternator to generate electricity.
4. OPERATION OF A TURBINE
An hydraulic turbine is a rotatory mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow, such as water, and converts it into useful work. The turbine transforms the energy of the movement of a fluid, into rotation mechanical energy. Energy can come from a waterfall or from the current itself. This rotational movement is transferred by a shaft that can directly move another machine or it can also be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator. There are two types of turbine Impulseand reaction turbine.
In this case, the water moves the impeller, not by the direct blow, but by the reaction caused by the exit of the water on the impeller. In this case, we are interested in having a large flow of water that pushes the water that enters the pipes so that it comes out with great force (pressure) and moves the impeller with more force. The height at which the water falls here is not very important because it does not hit the blades directly.
5. PARTS OF A TURBINE
As can be seen in the drawing, the water is collected by an inlet pipe and distributed to various outlet points by the distributor. The points where the water comes out are called nozzles, which cause the water to push the blades of the impeller that rotates the turbine shaft, also called the rotor. The impeller consists mainly of a disc provided with a system of blades, buckets, shovels or spoons on which the water pushes. Water comes out from the waste pipe to the river or canal flow.